We have aimed at a concise description but have taken care that all the fundamental concepts are clearly described. Regarding our selection of top- ics, we were guided by pedagogical considerations. Many historically significant experiments, whose results can nowadays be much more simply obtained, were deliberately omitted. Particles and Nuclei Teilchen und Kerne is based on lectures on nuclear and particle physics given at the University of Heidelberg to students in their 6th semester and conveys the fundamental knowledge in this area, which is required of a student majoring in physics.
On traditional grounds these lectures, and therefore this book, strongly emphasise the physical con- cepts. We are particularly grateful to J. Hiifner Heidelberg and M. Rosina Ljubljana for their valuable contributions to the nuclear physics part of the book. We would like to thank D. Dubbers Heidelberg , A.
Fafiler Tubingen , G. Garvey Los Alamos , H.
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Koch Bochum , K. Konigsmann Freiburg , U. Mairle Mannheim , O. Naclrtmann Hei- delberg , H. Pirner Heidelberg , B. Stech Heidelberg , and Th. Walclrer Mainz for their critical reading and helpful comments on some sections. Many students who attended our lecture in the and summer semesters helped us through their criticism to correct mistakes and improve unclear passages. We owe special thanks to M.
Beck, Clr. Biischer, S.
Particles and Nuclei : an Introduction to the Physical Concepts (Book, ) [domttronrosoonth.tk]
Fabian, Th. Haller, A. Laser, A.
Miicklich, W. Wander, and E. Lavelle Barcelona has translated the major part of the book and put it in the present linguistic form.
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We much appreciated his close collaboration with us. The English translation of this book was started by H. Hahn and M. Moinester Tel Aviv whom we greatly thank. Numerous figures from the German text have been adapted for the English edition by J. Bockholt, V. Traumer, and G. We would like to extend our thanks to Springer- Verlag, in particular W. Beiglbock for his support and advice during the preparation of the Ger- man and, later on, the English editions of this book.
Wilhelm Busch Max und Moritz 4. Streich 1. By the end of the 19th century, it was known that all matter is composed of atoms. However, the existence of close to elements showing periodically recurring properties was a clear indication that atoms themselves have an internal structure, and are not indivisible. An atom is composed of a dense nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud. The nucleus itself can be decomposed into smaller particles. After the discovery of the neutron in , there was no longer any doubt that the building blocks of nuclei are protons and neutrons collectively called nucleons.
Thus, by the mid-thirties, these four particles could describe all the then known phenomena of atomic and nuclear physics. Today, these particles are still considered to be the main constituents of matter. But this simple, closed picture turned out in fact to be incapable of describing other phenomena. Experiments at particle accelerators in the fifties and sixties showed that protons and neutrons are merely representatives of a large family of particles now called hadrons. These hadrons, like atoms, can be classified in groups with similar properties.
It was therefore assumed that they cannot be understood as fundamental constituents of matter. In the late sixties, the quark model established order in the hadronic zoo. All known hadrons could be described as combinations of two or three quarks. Figure 1. As we probe the atom with increasing magnification, smaller and smaller structures become visible: the nucleus, the nucleons, and finally the quarks. Length scales and structural hi- erarchy in atomic structure. To the right, typical excitation energies and spectra are shown. Smaller bound systems possess larger excitation energies.
Leptons and quarks. The two fundamental types of building blocks are the leptons, which include the electron and the neutrino, and the quarks. In scattering experiments, these were found to be smaller than 10 m. They are possibly point-like particles. In contrast to atoms, nuclei and hadrons, no excited states of quarks or leptons have so far been observed.
Thus, they appear to be elementary particles. Today, however, we know of 6 leptons and 6 quarks as well as their an- tiparticles. Thus, the number of leptons and quarks is relatively large; furthermore, their properties recur in each generation. Some physicists believe these two facts are a hint that leptons and quarks are not elementary building blocks of matter. Only experiment will teach us the truth. Around the year , four forces were considered to be basic: gravitation, electricity, magnetism and the barely comprehended forces between atoms and molecules.
By the end of the 19th century, electricity and magnetism were understood to be manifestations of the same force: electromagnetism. Later it was shown that atoms have a structure and are composed of a positively charged nucleus and an electron cloud; the whole held together by the electromagnetic interaction. Overall, atoms are electrically neutral. At short distances, however, the electric fields between atoms do not cancel out completely, and neighbouring atoms and molecules influence each other.
Particles And Nuclei: An Introduction To The Physical Concepts
When nuclear physics developed, two new short-ranged forces joined the ranks. Today, we know that the nuclear force is not fundamental.
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In analogy to the forces acting between atoms being effects of the electromagnetic interaction, the nuclear force is a result of the strong force binding quarks to form protons and neutrons. These strong and weak forces lead to the corresponding fundamental interactions between the elementary particles. Intermediate bosons. The four fundamental interactions on which all physical phenomena are based are gravitation, the electromagnetic interac- tion, the strong interaction and the weak interaction.
Gravitation is important for the existence of stars, galaxies, and planetary systems and for our daily life , it is of no significance in subatomic physics, being far too weak to noticeably influence the interaction between elementary particles. We mention it only for completeness.
Each of these three interactions is associated with a charge: electric charge, weak charge and strong charge. The strong charge is also called colour charge or colour for short. A particle is subject to an interaction if and only if it carries the corresponding charge: - Leptons and quarks carry weak charge.
Quarks are electrically charged, so are some of the leptons e. Therefore, the weak interaction is of very short range. The rest mass of the photon is zero. Therefore, the range of the electromagnetic interaction is infinite. The gluons, like the photons, have zero rest mass. Whereas photons, how- ever, have no electrical charge, gluons carry colour charge.
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Hence they can interact with each other. As we will see, this causes the strong interaction to be also very short ranged. The conservation laws of classical physics energy, momentum, angular momentum are a consequence of the fact that the interactions are invariant with respect to their canonically conjugate quantities time, space, angles.