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Evaluation Activities of the Advanced Technology Program. U S Optical Detector Industry. Economic Impact Assessment. Get Access Get Access. Abstract This paper argues that the decision usefulness paradigm, which currently dominates accounting theory, is not an adequate basis for considering external reporting. Recommended articles Citing articles 0. All rights reserved. Informal learning is defined as learning that is intentional or deliberate, but not institutionalised. It is consequently less organised and less structured than either formal or non-formal education.

Informal learning may include learning activities that occur in the family, workplace, local community and daily life, on a self-directed, family-directed or socially directed basis. In Estonia, legislation defines the role and mission of universities and professional HEIs, including their responsibility to provide education services to society Estonian Parliament, [39] ; Estonian Parliament, [40].

The provision of continuing education for the general public is among the criteria used in institutional accreditation.

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Institutions are assessed on whether they define and implement objectives for continuing education training, whether this form of training is tailored to meet the needs of target groups and whether mechanisms to monitor participant satisfaction exist. There are also goals related to the provision of continuing education in performance agreements, which are tied to funding. In Norway, continuing education is partly funded by the government and partly by the private sector.

The Strategy for Skills Policy promotes the development of continuing education in vocational colleges and higher education institutions and highlights the need for further development in this area Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, [41]. Study associations and other organisations also provide continuing education in Norway sometimes in partnership with higher education institutions.

Higher education institutions in a number of countries have centres for continuing education offering courses in various fields of study. Norwegian higher education institutions provide continuing education for adults through etterutdanning courses, which do not have any exams or credits, and videreutdanning courses, which have the same admissions requirements as regular higher education programmes, involve exams and provide students with credits. Continuing education provided by higher education institutions includes corporate and business training to companies.

The flexibility provided by continuing education helps Norwegians develop new skills and update their existing skills to meet changing labour market demands without having to enrol in a complete degree programme. However, continuing education students can use the credits they accumulate through the videreutdanning courses towards a degree. Additional examples of continuing education include the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes in the United States, which are funded by the Bernard Osher Foundation and are located on the campuses of more than higher education institutions across various states.

These institutes provide a wide range of non-credit courses and activities for adults older than 50 who are interested in learning for personal interest. Danish universities have a long tradition of delivering non-formal education in the form of extension courses.

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The university extension courses are a nationwide initiative delivered through four divisions in the cities of Copenhagen, Aarhus, Odense and Aalborg. In addition, there are also more than university extramural committees delivering non-formal education in other regions. The objective of the programme is to disseminate the results of the research produced by higher education institutions to the wider community in the form of lectures, lecture series and university courses. These cover a wide range of subjects, including health and natural sciences, humanities, social sciences and theology.

The Danish government provides grants to help cover some of the costs associated with teaching, travel and administration, the amount of which is determined in the annual Appropriations Act. The Council for the University Extramural Department Folkeuniversitetet is responsible for distributing the grants.

Participants in these courses have to pay a fee, which amounts to a minimum of one-fourth or, on some occasions, one-third of the expenditure on teaching Danish Ministry of Education, [42]. Higher education systems across the OECD are the key producers of basic research, which is used in applied research and experimental development, and ultimately in the production of new products and processes in business, government and other sectors of society. By engaging with the private, public and social sectors, higher education can create stronger potential for innovation within its research function.

Interactions between these three areas are facilitated by a range of activities, including:. Interaction between research and education: through geographic and sectoral mobility of graduates, postgraduate training programmes, basic and applied research as the basis for research-led teaching. Interaction between research and innovation: support for knowledge transfer and knowledge exchange via various initiatives, including:. Interaction between education and innovation: support for the development of an entrepreneurial culture in academic programmes and entrepreneurial skills Cervantes, [12].

Higher education institutions integrate the knowledge triangle by providing key inputs for each of the corners of the triangle and by embedding knowledge triangle processes into their internal organisation and missions. Governments use a range of measures to build closer linkages between education, research and innovation through higher education, including:. Many problems, such as those related to the environment or the global sanitation crisis, are becoming increasingly difficult to solve without scientific advice, and governments have shifted to more evidence-informed approaches to tackling the biggest challenges in society.

In this context, connecting the knowledge produced by higher education institutions more deeply with different stakeholders, such as non-profit organisations, foundations and civil organisations, strengthens the relevance of higher education OECD, [45].

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It also helps higher education institutions strengthen their role in national and global knowledge systems, and become more financially sustainable. This collaboration provides benefits for enterprises, which gain easy access to knowledge that is relevant for product development and innovation. Finally, it gives researchers better access to business and social networks and more opportunities to work in various fields. Executives were asked to rate the extent to which businesses collaborate with universities in their respective countries, on a scale from 1 not at all to 7 to a great extent World Economic Forum, [46].

The top five countries that reported a high level of higher education-business collaboration in the Global Competitiveness Index in were Switzerland, Israel, the United States, Finland and the Netherlands.

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This chart shows the response to the question: In your country, to what extent do business and universities collaborate on research and development? The CIS differs from the World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey in that it asks individual enterprises if they have collaborated with the higher education sector over the period , whereas the Executive Opinion Survey asks the enterprise to make a judgement about the level of university-business collaboration for the country as a whole.

This should be taken into account when interpreting the data from the two surveys, as the Executive Opinion Survey measures perceptions of university-business collaboration rather than factual collaboration.

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In all four participating jurisdictions, the share of enterprises co-operating with the higher education sector was higher than the share of enterprises co-operating with government or public research institutes, and with private research institutes. It also specifies that both partners do not need to commercially benefit to be counted as co-operating on innovation activities. The relatively high level of collaboration between SMEs and higher education institutions in Belgium might be due to a number of systemic initiatives created to stimulate higher education engagement with companies, and in particular with SMEs.

While higher education and business co-operation is improving in Estonia, it needs to be further strengthened European Commission, [49]. Estonia has introduced a number of initiatives to connect research with business:. Services offered by the network include contract research, data analysis, continuing education and other training services. Support is provided through vouchers e. Enterprises can apply for funding to commission research and development projects from the qualified research institutions, including universities.

The centres provide a space for co-operative activities with qualified specialists and for the provision of research and training. There are six Competence Centres dealing with health technology, food production, information and communication technologies ICT and manufacturing. The Flemish government funds research activities performed by higher education institutions through the Industrial Research Fund. Part of the funding is allocated to establish interface structures, such as Technology Transfer Offices TTOs , which facilitate the transfer of knowledge from higher education institutions to industry and the wider society.

The TTOs affiliated with the five Flemish universities are responsible for establishing contact with industry, offering legal support related to contracts, promoting education activities for engagement, offering protection of intellectual property and supporting start-ups and spin-offs. The network also plays a role in improving the collaboration between TTOs, strengthening their performance, and maximising the benefits of the knowledge and technology produced by higher education institutions to the economy and society.

Strategies were developed for each sector, and consortia for knowledge and innovation, known as Top Consortia for Knowledge and Innovation TKI , were formed to implement them.

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  4. These TKI consortia consist of public-private partnerships, which include higher education institutions. Every two years, the Dutch Statistical Office monitors the success of the top sectors initiative in the areas of macro-economy, enterprise development, employment characteristics, innovation performance and education output. Science-industry relationships are difficult to measure given the diversity and intangibility of knowledge transfer channels.

    University-private co-publications are one of the more tangible ways of showing collaboration between higher education and private sectors. In , the share of co-publications ranged between 4. Belgium and the Netherlands had a higher percentage of university-private co-publications as a share of total co-publications, as well as the total co-publication output, than that of the OECD average. Meanwhile, the total co-publication output of Norway was higher than the OECD average, but the share of university-private co-publications was below average.

    Estonia on the other hand, had both the university-private co-publication share and the total co-publication output below the OECD average. Policies to encourage the production of publications are typically included in indicators of performance-based funding schemes block grant for research in participating jurisdictions. In the case of the Flemish Community, the number of publications and citations is one of the parameters that dictates the allocation of funds derived from the Special Research Fund. In the Netherlands, higher education institutions are able to include both quantitative and qualitative components in performance-based funding.

    For the more quantitative approach, indicators such as the number of co-publications with industry are used. Publication points 2 is a close-end budget indicator of the results-based funding for higher education, which allocates a set amount of funding and requires competition among institutions as opposed to indicators that have an open-end budget and are not subject to a fixed pool of funds. Examples of factors that may inhibit the share of multiple-affiliation university-industry co-publications i. As seen in this section, some OECD countries have developed or are at the early stages of developing indicators to measure the social impact of engagement activity in research.

    Such developments have the potential to eventually evolve into comparable indicators across OECD countries. Higher education institutions have an important impact on their local environments. The effects of institutions in urban or regional areas can be political, demographic, economic, infrastructural, cultural, educational and social Peer and Penker, [56]. They can directly contribute to the economy and help increase productivity OECD, [57]. They can also have an indirect impacts on human capital, the pool of knowledge and the attractiveness of a local area OECD, [5].

    Projections of population growth indicate that many cities will undergo a heavy urbanisation process in the coming years. Higher education can play a role in developing solutions to challenges posed by increasing urbanisation. The City Deals on Education Kennis Maken was introduced in , with support from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, with the aim of finding solutions for social challenges in cities through the large-scale involvement of researchers, lecturers and students. Not only does this strengthen the problem-solving capacity of the city, but it also contributes to the training of students who will contribute to shaping society — and gives them a better understanding of social issues.

    Using society as a learning environment for students is an important theme in the Strategic Agenda for Higher Education and Research This can take different forms, such as community service, knowledge workshops, field laboratories and student housing in the learning environment itself. Currently, universities in 11 major Dutch cities including all professional HEIs are participating in the initiative. Six additional cities will join the initiative in In , the OECD, in partnership with the Ford Foundation, launched the Inclusive Growth in Cities initiative, which invites mayors from around the world, as well as leaders from business, philanthropic organisations, associations of cities, think-tanks and international institutions to identify and promote the role of cities in addressing rising inequalities.