This is additionally in line with the longitudinal approach to research at CIRS. When a practice is performed, such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator, it entails an instance of integration of the various elements of practice. That means that the practice-performance involves integrating the meanings involved in using the stairs perhaps relating to exercise or for reasons of sustainability ; the individual possesses the skill or physical ability to climb them; and of course the convenient availability of the objects stairs, railings involved in doing so.
Thus the practice of stair-climbing emerges based on what it entails and means based on specific context. It becomes a normalised practice, should others follow suit, 50 sharing as well in the various meanings, skills and material function of the stairs.
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Each of the elements is equally important to the enactment of the practice. The point of defining this rather delicate distinction between entity and performance is to understand how practices change. And it is this re-creation that slowly over time changes the original practice. This is where agency can express itself: where interventions and change are possible, is in the connections between elements. Thus, stair-climbing might be taken up because the person is leery of being seen as consuming energy by taking the elevator in a building that expresses sustainability, or because they associate exercise with health.
Conversely, with an aging population, stair-climbing may be taken up by younger people. In a more litigious society, stairs may be seen as more dangerous than elevators, and so on. In this way individuals and new meanings become attached to practices.
Making the distinction between what is a permanent, larger-scale cultural or societal change in practice such as the abandonment of architectural typologies, or processes in design , and what are effectively only variants in practice differences in wayfaring; differences in ways of gaining acoustic privacy, etc. Tracing those materials, skills, and meanings; and the impact of these elements on human being in health, productivity and well-being and therefore the practice writ large , is tied closely to the aim of the thesis.
Significantly, this huge and distributed body of knowledge and practice existed in our respective cultures before our birth, and we have come to pick up and carry pieces of that knowledge, to which we adapt and that we in turn adapt for our own uses. This is the ever-changing Bourdieusian habitus, or the Heideggerian notion of interpretation of prior knowledge Rouse, Those years of experience are also shaped by constraints put upon our material existence by systems that change radically slowly and that are, generally, outside of our immediate control.
But under this conception, and that dominant in psychology, we are stuck between a kind of practice-centred behaviourism on the habitual side of theories of action, and operations of brains, on the cognitive side. These are all defining features of practices and habits.
But Rouse , , for example, rejects the notion that practices can be reduced to rule-following agency, or that practice exists as a stable background structure or worldview both conceptions also deconstructed by S. Turner, Rouse finds that the most powerful form of practice theory involves reference to norms, allowing agency to exist in an account of practices, even if indirectly. Following Wittgenstein and Heidegger, Rouse asserts that a practice is: …not a regularity underlying its constituent performances, but a pattern of interaction among them that expresses their mutual normative accountability [emphasis added].
Such holding to account is itself integral to the practice, and can likewise be done correctly or incorrectly.
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If incorrectly, then it would appropriately be accountable in turn, by responding to it as would be appropriate to a mistaken holding-accountable. And so forth. Rouse, , p. Rouse, The main requirement is that practices must be interactively self-defined: they are identified through interaction with each other. Thus it is in the sanctioning of a practice, in the course of the action of the practice 53 itself and interaction between players themselves which determines, over time and across context, whether a given practice survives to be carried in the next instance , So the new person who brings a frozen pizza to a fancy pot-luck might notice that their contribution is not eaten or is joked about.
This discussion is relevant because this study seeks to understand engagement as exhibited, or not, by the population of inhabitants of a unique building as a form of practice that is normative. Additionally, states of being such as well-being, productivity or health are defined as intimately bound, inextricable, and emergent from context, which includes the materiality of the building, and the normative and discursive context through which practices some of which engender states of being are replicated. Like norms, practices are always dynamically reactive.
This is consistent with the account of practices given so far. Where the normative account of practices diverges from the pragmatic literature provided by Schatzki and Shove is where the concept of practice as normative must rely on intersubjectivity, and therefore discourse, because language itself is part of daily life and social practice.
This reliance is counter to contemporary practice theories, and the account of 54 SPT given so far, which is pragmatically-based and takes practices to be unconscious, inaccessible and dynamically emergent: outside of human intention or even seeming interaction, they are picked up, carried and lost. Nonetheless, we cannot do without them if we want a social theory with sufficient explanatory structure. This requirement is fulfilled adequately by epistemologically responsible forms of practice theory, including ethnomethodology, ethnographic thick descriptions, and the reconstructive sciences Bohman, , p.
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A challenge, then, to taking the pragmatic approach to social practice, lies in how to incorporate or refer to talking about practices and habits. Yes, if we assume that practices are dynamic and changeable, through different kinds of normatively-based negotiation and renegotiation, which must allow for reference to discourse at least some of the time.
We can then avoid reducing structuration theory to structure, or practice to the unconscious. The strongly pragmatic flavour of SPT developed in reaction to the cognitive and representational trends in cultural studies of the time Caldwell, ; Reckwitz, b ; also see Figure 2. These aspects, as they are practices or related to practices, are locally enculturated, without the need to think about them. While Giddens posits the practical consciousness as the foundation for social order Haugaard, , his own account of the practical consciousness was somewhat contradictory.
This is because acknowledging discourse entails the dominance of agency over structure giving primacy back to conscious cognitive processes , and acknowledging unconsciousness entails the dominance of structure over agency giving primacy back to environmental determinism.
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Such unsolvable dichotomies include the material and the meaningful; the rational and the practical; agency and structure; stability and change Ringmar, , all of which apply to theoretic contradictions within social practice theory. My own review of the SPT literature finds these dichotomies as theoretical forks at which SPT approaches diverge, including the thread that disallows discourse as opposed to material, practical, structural aspects.
What, then, is the role of language, employed everyday in the social world of practices? And where is the scope for change in practice — which does take place — under the claim that practices are unconscious? This is like saying that only someone who has studied Magritte paintings can know a Magritte when she sees one. But while Magritte may not have been able to express verbally what he was doing while painting,21 he was at least able to talk about his paintings later as do many others. Privileging the researcher expert with arcane knowledge is less useful than finding out what a range of voices might have to offer.
As any qualitative researcher knows, participant offerings are generally insightful. Eliminating the possibility of talk about practices seems to be neither a methodological, nor, ultimately, an epistemological matter. Accessing practices by talking to the human carrier of those practices, is still yet the most direct route of investigation available. Further, airing practice through discussion has the added benefit adding a layer of self-reflexivity, for both researcher and subject, of questioning those practices.
The bracketing of talk is therefore also not epistemological, because, as Hitchings discusses, both Bourdieu and Giddens allowed for the role of self-reflexivity i. Where practices are not conceived of as virtually intentional Shove, , the evidence for the fact that practices are accessible, lies in the very fact that they change.
The way that my research met this challenge of bracketing the role of talk was partly driven by parsimony: the use of language, it must be seen, is inseparable from what it is to be human, and social. Therefore, language is inseparable from practices. As such, interviews and surveys were still seen as useful, and even necessary tools, in order to discern practices.
Finally, the aspect of the role of talking about practices further ties in with the double hermeneutic aspect of this research, which is discussed in Section 5. Cole, Net-positive design has a few contemporaries that help to illustrate how regenerative design manifests itself. C2C certification of various products became available in the s; there are currently hundreds of products, from building materials through to health products and apparel.
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- 21 Gridlock & Globalization.
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- La donna che sussurra ai gatti (Italian Edition).
Both the C2C and DfS approaches rely on and incorporate the 3Rs, and strive to reduce environmental impacts; they are both predominantly focused on environmental considerations, with some acknowledgement of the need for fundamental social and systemic change in business practices, at least. Mang, , p. In design, net-positive buildings are also distinguished by requiring the extensive engagement of the design team and stakeholders R.
Cole, a; R. Mang, ; P. That is, net-positive buildings constitute small niches of organisation, even if the overall system in which they are located is entropic, just as the existence of life constitutes niches of organisation within an entropic universe. A net-positive building situated in a rainforest ecosystem will use and regenerate resources in different amounts and rates, inhabitants will learn different ecological meanings and the building will perform different functions, compared to a net-positive building situated in a desert.
In net-positive balance, the building is designed to work with what is available.