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The Atlantic menhaden is used for fishmeal and fish oil and Alaska pollock is consumed, but also used for fish paste to simulate crab. The Pacific cod has recently been used as a substitute for Atlantic cod which has been overfished.

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The amount of fish available in the oceans is an ever-changing number due to the effects of both natural causes and human developments. It will be necessary to manage ocean fisheries in the coming years to make sure the number of fish caught never makes it to zero.

Exploration for and exploitation of marine resources

A lack of fish greatly impacts the economy of communities dependent on the resource, as can be seen in Japan, eastern Canada, New England, Indonesia and Alaska. The anchovy fisheries off the coast of western South America have already collapsed and with numbers dropping violently from 20 million tons to 4 million tons—they may never fully recover. Other collapses include the California sardine industry, the Alaskan king crab industry and the Canadian northern cod industry.

In Massachusetts alone, the cod, haddock and yellowtail flounder industries collapsed, causing an economic disaster for the area. Due to the importance of fishing to the worldwide economy and the need for humans to understand human impacts on the environment, the academic division of fisheries science was developed. Fisheries science includes all aspects of marine biology, in addition to economics and management skills and information. Marine conservation issues like overfishing, sustainable fisheries and management of fisheries are also examined through fisheries science.

In order for there to be plenty of fish in the years ahead, fisheries will have to develop sustainable fisheries and some will have to close. Scientists are often in the role of fisheries managers and must regulate the amount of fishing in the oceans, a position not popular with those who have to make a living fishing ever decreasing populations. Fish populate the ocean in patches instead of being spread out throughout the enormous expanse.

High nutrient contents from upwelling, runoff, the regeneration of nutrients and other ecological processes supply fish in these areas with the necessary requirements for life.

14 - Inspirations from Sustainable Maritime Development

The blue color of the water near the coastlines is the result of chlorophyll contained in aquatic plant life. Most fish are only found in very specific habitats. Shrimp are fished in river deltas that bring large amounts of freshwater into the ocean. The areas of highest productivity known as banks are actually where the Continental Shelf extends outward towards the ocean.

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Areas where the ocean is very shallow also contain many fish and include the middle and southern regions of the North Sea. In the open ocean, tuna and other mobile species like yellowfin can be found in large amounts. The question of how many fish there are in the ocean is a complicated one but can be simplified using populations of fish instead of individuals.

Cohorts start off as eggs with an extremely high rate of mortality, which declines as the fish gets older. Cohort mortality is tied in with the species of fish due to variances in natural mortality. The biomass of a particular cohort is greatest when fish are rapidly growing and decreases as the fish get older and start to die. Scientists use theories and models to help determine the number and size of fish populations in the ocean. Production theory is the theory that production will be highest when the number of fish does not overwhelm the environment and there are not too few for genetic diversity of populations.

The maximum sustainable yield is produced when the population is of intermediate size. Yield-per-recruit theory is the quest to determine the optimum age for harvesting fish. The theory of recruitment and stock allows scientists to make a guess about the optimum population size to encourage a larger population of recruits. Other factors that must be taken into account are the ecological requirements of individual fish species like predation and nutrition and why fish will often migrate to different areas. Water temperatures also influence the behavior of ecosystems, causing an increase in metabolism and predation or a sort of hibernation.

Even the amount of turbulence in the water can affect predator-prey relationships, with more meetings between the two when waters are stirred up. Global warming could have a huge economic impact on the fisheries when fish stocks are forced to move to waters with more tolerable temperatures. In many countries, commercial fishing has found more temporarily economical ways of catching fish, including gill nets, purse seines, and drift nets. Although fish are trapped efficiently in one day using these fishing practices, the number of fish that are wasted this way has reached 27 million tons per year, not to mention the crucial habitats destroyed that are essential for the regeneration of fish stocks.

In addition, marine mammals and birds are also caught in these nets. The wasted fish and marine life is referred to as bycatch, an unfortunate side-effect of unsustainable fishing practices that can turn the ecosystem upside-down and leave huge amounts of dead matter in the water. Other human activities like trawling and dredging of the ocean floor have bulldozed over entire underwater habitats.

The oyster habitat has been completely destroyed in many areas from the use of the oyster patent tong and sediment buildup draining from farm runoff. Wind-powered ships exist, but more often ships are powered by steam turbine plants or diesel engines. Naval ships are usually responsible for transporting most of trade from one country to another and are called merchant navies. The various types of ships include container ships, tankers, crude oil ships, product ships, chemical ships, bulk carriers, cable layers, general cargo ships, offshore supply vessels, dynamically-positioned ships, ferries, gas and car carriers, tugboats, barges and dredgers.

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In theory, shipping can have a low impact on the environment. It is safe and profitable for economies around the world. However, serious problems occur with the shipping of oil, dumping of waste water into the ocean, chemical accidents at sea, and the inevitable air and water pollution occuring when modern day engines are used. Ships release air pollutants in the form of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

Chemicals dumped in the ocean from ships include chemicals from the ship itself, cleaning chemicals for machine parts, and cleaning supplies for living quarters. Large amounts of chemicals are often spilled into the ocean and sewage is not always treated properly or treated at all. Alien species riding in the ballast water of ships arrive in great numbers to crash native ecosystems and garbage is dumped over the side of many vessels. Dangerous industrial waste and harmful substances like halogenated hydrocarbons, water treatment chemicals, and anti-fouling paints are also dumped frequently.

Ships and other watercraft with engines disturb the natural environment with loud noises, large waves, frequently striking and killing animals like manatees and dolphins. Tourism is the fastest growing division of the world economy and is responsible for more than million jobs all over the world. In the US alone, tourism resulted in an economic gain of billion dollars.

The tourism industry is based on natural resources present in each country and usually negatively affect ecosystems because it is often left unmanaged. However, sustainable tourism can actually promote conservation of the environment. Dive boat with recreational divers, Key Largo, Florida. The negative effects of tourism originate from the development of coastal habitats and the annihilation of entire ecosystems like mangroves, coral reefs, wetlands and estuaries.

Garbage and sewage generated by visitors can add to the already existing solid waste and garbage disposal issues present in many communities. Often visitors produce more waste than locals, and much of it ends up as untreated sewage dumped in the ocean. The ecosystem must cope with eutrophication, or the loss of oxygen in the water due to excessive algal bloom, as well as disease epidemics.

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Sewage can be used as reclaimed water to treat lawns so that fertilizers and pesticides do not seep into the ocean. Other problems with tourism include the overexploitation of local seafood, the destruction of local habitats through careless scuba diving or snorkeling and the dropping of anchors on underwater features.

The Blue Economy: Harnessing the Ocean’s Resources for Sustainable Development | Chatham House

Ecotourism and cultural tourism are a new trend that favors low impact tourism and fosters a respect for local cultures and ecosystems. Diamonds are found in greater number and quality in the ocean than on land, but are much harder to mine. When diamonds are mined, the ocean floor is dredged to bring it up to the boat and sift through the sediment for valuable gems.

The process is difficult as sediment is not easy to bring up to the surface, but will probably become a huge industry once technology evolves to solve the logistical problem. Noise and vibration on board ship. Sound Vib. Towards less noise on board ship. Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering International, , pp. Approaches to Noise Exposure. A new suggestion about vibration criterion for ships. In Grifln, M. Human factors in the naval environment: a review of motion sickness and biodynamic problems No.

De Lorenzo. De Lorenzo, M. Tamura, T. Kawada, Y. Effect of ship noise on sleep. Horiyasu, Y.

Sano, K.