Paths of Glory became Kubrick's first significant commercial success, and established him as an up-and-coming young filmmaker. Critics praised the film's unsentimental, spare, and unvarnished combat scenes and its raw, black-and-white cinematography. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote: "The close, hard eye of Mr Kubrick's sullen camera bores directly into the minds of scheming men and into the hearts of patient, frightened soldiers who have to accept orders to die". The film was banned in France until for its "unflattering" depiction of the French military, and was censored by the Swiss Army until He has an adroit intellect, and is a creative thinker—not a repeater, not a fact-gatherer.
He digests what he learns and brings to a new project an original point of view and a reserved passion". Many disputes broke out over the project, and in the end, Kubrick distanced himself from what would become One-Eyed Jacks In February , Kubrick received a phone call from Kirk Douglas asking him to direct Spartacus , based on the true life story of the historical figure Spartacus and the events of the Third Servile War. Douglas had acquired the rights to the novel by Howard Fast and blacklisted screenwriter Dalton Trumbo began penning the script.
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Kubrick complained about not having full creative control over the artistic aspects, insisting on improvising extensively during the production. Kubrick and Harris made a decision to film Kubrick's next movie Lolita in England, due to clauses placed on the contract by producers Warner Bros. Stylistically, Lolita , starring Peter Sellers , James Mason , Shelley Winters , and Sue Lyon , was a transitional film for Kubrick, "marking the turning point from a naturalistic cinema Kercher documented that the film "demonstrated that its director possessed a keen, satiric insight into the social landscape and sexual hang-ups of cold war America", while Jon Fortgang of Film4 wrote: "Lolita, with its acute mix of pathos and comedy, and Mason's mellifluous delivery of Nabokov's sparkling lines, remains the definitive depiction of tragic transgression".
Kubrick's next project was Dr. Kubrick became preoccupied with the issue of nuclear war as the Cold War unfolded in the s, and even considered moving to Australia because he feared that New York City might be a likely target for the Russians.
He studied over 40 military and political research books on the subject and eventually reached the conclusion that "nobody really knew anything and the whole situation was absurd". It was originally written as a serious political thriller, but Kubrick decided that a "serious treatment" of the subject would not be believable, and thought that some of its most salient points would be fodder for comedy.
Just before filming began, Kubrick hired noted journalist and satirical author Terry Southern to transform the script into its final form, a black comedy, loaded with sexual innuendo,  becoming a film which showed Kubrick's talents as a "unique kind of absurdist" according to the film scholar Abrams. Kubrick found that Dr. It was shot in 15 weeks, ending in April , after which Kubrick spent eight months editing it.
The New York Times film critic Bosley Crowther worried that it was a "discredit and even contempt for our whole defense establishment However brutal that joke might be". Kubrick spent five years developing his next film, A Space Odyssey , having been highly impressed with science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke 's novel Childhood's End , about a superior race of alien beings who assist mankind in eliminating their old selves.
After meeting Clarke in New York City in April , Kubrick made the suggestion to work on his short story The Sentinel , about a tetrahedron which is found on the Moon which alerts aliens of mankind. The film's theme, the birthing of one intelligence by another, is developed in two parallel intersecting stories on two very different time scales. One depicts transitions between various stages of man, from ape to "star child", as man is reborn into a new existence, each step shepherded by an enigmatic alien intelligence seen only in its artifacts: a series of seemingly indestructible eons-old black monoliths.
In space, the enemy is a supercomputer known as HAL who runs the spaceship, a character which novelist Clancy Sigal described as being "far, far more human, more humorous and conceivably decent than anything else that may emerge from this far-seeing enterprise".
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Kubrick spent a great deal of time researching the film, paying particular attention to accuracy and detail in what the future might look like. He was granted permission by NASA to observe the spacecraft being used in the Ranger 9 mission for accuracy. The film revolves around this metaphysical conception, and the realistic hardware and the documentary feelings about everything were necessary in order to undermine your built-in resistance to the poetical concept". Upon release in , A Space Odyssey was not an immediate hit among critics, who faulted its lack of dialog, slow pacing, and seemingly impenetrable storyline.
Kubrick was particularly outraged by a scathing review from Pauline Kael , who called it "the biggest amateur movie of them all", with Kubrick doing "really every dumb thing he ever wanted to do".
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After completing A Space Odyssey , Kubrick searched for a project that he could film quickly on a more modest budget. He settled on A Clockwork Orange at the end of , an exploration of violence and experimental rehabilitation by law enforcement authorities, based around the character of Alex portrayed by Malcolm McDowell. Kubrick had originally received a copy of Anthony Burgess 's novel of the same name from Terry Southern while they were working on Dr.
Strangelove , but had rejected it on the grounds that Nadsat , [w] a street language for young teenagers, was too difficult to comprehend. In , the decision to make a film about the degeneration of youth was a more timely one; the New Hollywood movement was witnessing a great number of films that were centered around the sexuality and rebelliousness of young people, which no doubt influenced Kubrick in Baxter's opinion.
Because of its depiction of teenage violence, A Clockwork Orange became one of the most controversial films of its time, and part of an ongoing debate about violence and its glorification in cinema. It received an X rating , or certificate, in both the UK and US, on its release just before Christmas , though many critics saw much of the violence depicted in the film as satirical, and less violent than Straw Dogs , which had been released a month earlier.
In fact, not just this year, but the best, period". Barry Lyndon is an adaptation of William Makepeace Thackeray 's The Luck of Barry Lyndon also known as Barry Lyndon , a picaresque novel about the adventures of an 18th-century Irish rogue and social climber. John Calley of Warner Bros.
Extensive photographs were taken of locations and artwork in particular, and paintings were meticulously replicated from works of the great masters of the period in the film. Baxter notes that Barry Lyndon was the film which made Kubrick notorious for paying scrupulous attention to detail, often demanding twenty or thirty retakes of the same scene to perfect his art. The lenses allowed many scenes to be lit only with candlelight, creating two-dimensional, diffused-light images reminiscent of 18th-century paintings. As with most of Kubrick's films, Barry Lyndon' s reputation has grown through the years and it is now considered to be one of his best, particularly among filmmakers and critics.
The Shining , released in , was adapted from the novel of the same name by bestselling horror writer Stephen King.
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The Shining was not the only horror film to which Kubrick had been linked; he had turned down the directing of both The Exorcist and Exorcist II: The Heretic , despite once saying in to a friend that he had long desired to "make the world's scariest movie, involving a series of episodes that would play upon the nightmare fears of the audience".
He spends the winter there with his wife, played by Shelley Duvall , and their young son, who displays paranormal abilities. During their stay, they confront both Jack's descent into madness and apparent supernatural horrors lurking in the hotel. Kubrick gave his actors freedom to extend the script, and even improvise on occasion, and as a result, Nicholson was responsible for the 'Here's Johnny! Duvall, who Kubrick also intentionally isolated and argued with often, was forced to perform the iconic and exhausting baseball bat scene times.
Afterwards, Duvall presented Kubrick with clumps of hair that had fallen out due to the extreme stress of filming. According to Garrett Brown , Steadicam's inventor, it was the first picture to use its full potential. Five days after release on May 23, , Kubrick ordered the deletion of a final scene, in which the hotel manager Ullman Barry Nelson visits Wendy Shelley Duvall in hospital, believing it to have been unnecessary after witnessing the audience excitement in cinemas at the climax of the film. With the vision in mind to shoot what would become Full Metal Jacket , Kubrick began working with both Herr and Hasford separately on a script.
He eventually found Hasford's novel to be "brutally honest" and decided to shoot a film which closely follows the novel. According to critic Michel Ciment , the film contained some of Kubrick's trademark characteristics, such as his selection of ironic music, portrayals of men being dehumanized, and attention to extreme detail to achieve realism.
In a later scene, United States Marines patrol the ruins of an abandoned and destroyed city singing the theme song to the Mickey Mouse Club as a sardonic counterpoint. Then the film degenerates into a masterpiece. He concluded: "Stanley Kubrick's Full Metal Jacket is more like a book of short stories than a novel", a "strangely shapeless film from the man whose work usually imposes a ferociously consistent vision on his material". Tom Cruise portrays a doctor who witnesses a bizarre masked quasireligious orgiastic ritual at a country mansion, a discovery which later threatens his life.
Kubrick said of the novel: "A difficult book to describe—what good book isn't. It explores the sexual ambivalence of a happy marriage and tries to equate the importance of sexual dreams and might-have-beens with reality. All of Schnitzler's work is psychologically brilliant". He commenced a script with Frederic Raphael ,  and worked 18 hours a day, while maintaining complete confidentiality about the film.
Kubrick sent an unfinished preview copy to the stars and producers a few months before release, but his sudden death on March 7, , came a few days after he finished editing. He never saw the final version released to the public,  but he did see the preview of the film with Warner Bros. Roger Ebert awarded it 3. It feels creaky, ancient, hopelessly out of touch, infatuated with the hot taboos of his youth and unable to connect with that twisty thing contemporary sexuality has become.
Throughout the s and early s, Kubrick collaborated with Brian Aldiss on an expansion of his short story " Supertoys Last All Summer Long " into a three-act film. It was a futuristic fairy tale about a robot that resembles and behaves as a child, and his efforts to become a 'real boy' in a manner similar to Pinocchio. Kubrick approached Spielberg in with the AI script with the possibility of Steven Spielberg directing it and Kubrick producing it.
Following Kubrick's death in , Spielberg took the various drafts and notes left by Kubrick and his writers and composed a new screenplay based on an earlier page story treatment by Ian Watson written under Kubrick's supervision and according to Kubrick's specifications. Artificial Intelligence   which was produced by Kubrick's longtime producer and brother-in-law Jan Harlan.
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Spielberg was able to function autonomously in Kubrick's absence, but said he felt "inhibited to honor him", and followed Kubrick's visual schema with as much fidelity as he could, according to author Joseph McBride. Spielberg, who once referred to Kubrick as "the greatest master I ever served", now with production underway, admitted, "I felt like I was being coached by a ghost. It contains a posthumous production credit for Stanley Kubrick at the beginning and the brief dedication "For Stanley Kubrick" at the end. John Williams 's score contains many allusions to pieces heard in other Kubrick films.
Following A Space Odyssey , Kubrick originally planned to make a film about the life of the French emperor Napoleon. Fascinated by his life and own "self-destruction",  Kubrick spent a great deal of time planning the film's development, and had conducted about two years of extensive research into Napoleon's life, reading several hundred books and gaining access to Napoleon's personal memoirs and commentaries. He also tried to see every film ever made about Napoleon and found none of them appealing, including Abel Gance 's film which is generally considered to be a masterpiece, but for Kubrick, a "really terrible" movie.
Kubrick drafted a screenplay in , and envisaged making a "grandiose" epic, with up to 40, infantry and 10, cavalry. He had intended hiring the armed forces of an entire country to make the film, as he considered Napoleonic battles to be "so beautiful, like vast lethal ballets", with an "aesthetic brilliance that doesn't require a military mind to appreciate". He wanted them to be replicated as authentically as possible on screen.
Kubrick approached numerous stars to play leading roles, including Audrey Hepburn for Empress Josephine , a part which she could not accept due to semiretirement. Numerous reasons have been cited for the abandonment of the project, including its projected cost, a change of ownership at MGM,  and the poor reception that the Soviet film about Napoleon, Waterloo , received.